Bipolar disorder

Psychiatric disorder is more common  than we may think. One such common disorder, which could be linked to our increasingly busy, isolated and stressful lives, is bipolar disorder.  What is bipolar disorder, what happens in the brain, and how do friends and loved ones help a person who may suffer with it?

By Dr Samantha J. Brooks Ph.D.

Bipolar disorder – a mood disorder characterised by polar extremes of mood – was once known as “manic-depressive disorder”, which sheds light on the symptoms of this often debilating psychiatric condition.While it is normal to experience fluctuating periods of happiness and sadness associated with usual life circumstances, a person diagnosed with bipolar disorder will have triggered swings from extreme happiness and high levels of energy, to extreme sadness and hopelessness, within a matter of hours or days. Extreme happiness presents as mania, such that a person becomes excessively active in behaviour and speech, finds it difficult to sleep or sit still without fidgeting, and may have racing thoughts and ideas that fly quickly through the mind in illogical succession.  A person in the manic phase may take more risks, such as being more sexually active, taking drugs or spending more money.  Compare the manic phase to extreme sadness, where a person may experience debilitating depression and limited energy.  During the depressive phase a person may sleep all day and feel as if everything in their world is hopeless, with no motivation to change things. Both extremes are like a see-saw for the individual with bipolar disorder, who will likely experience no sense of organisation or control over their life. The extremes of bipolar disorder are associated with fluctuating neurotransmitter levels in the brain – a significant rise in dopamine levels for mania and a significant drop in serotonin and opioid levels for depression.  Less extreme versions of this debilitating condition – that often see people eventually losing their jobs, becoming withdrawn and not engaging in everyday activities – are known as hypomanic states.

It is important to remember that victims of domestic and emotional abuse may appear – or are led to believe that they are – behaving in a manner akin to bipolar disorder, and if this is happening to you it is vital to seek urgent support. A correct diagnosis of bipolar disorder does not stem from a disgruntled partner, an ex or a psychopathic boss, who may gain pleasure in causing upset and confusion – a manipulative tactic known in modern parlance as gaslighting – but rather stems from meeting strict criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version 5 (DSM-5). The DSM-5 can be relied upon – as the bible of psychiatrists – to determine real cases of psychiatric disorder, so that the individual sufferer can receive vital treatment (such as pharmacotherapy or counselling) to improve their quality of life.  The DSM-5 recognises four main types of bipolar disorder.  The first is Bipolar I Disorder, where manic episodes last for at least 7 days and severely consume the energy resources of the individual, to the point where they may need hospitalisation. Depressive symptoms usually co-occur for around 2 weeks and may also be present during episodes of mania.  The second is Bipolar II Disorder, which is defined as a successive pattern of unprovoked depressive symptoms and hypomanic states that cycle for at least 7 days, and might even surprisingly occur at the same time.  The third is Cyclothymic Disorder (also called cyclothymia), defined by numerous periods of hypomanic and depressive episodes lasting consecutively for at least 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents). Finally, Unspecified Bipolar Disorder is a catch-all category, where a person may exhibit episodes of mania or depression, but not usually within the same timescales as the main diagnoses.

What then, are the neuroscientific bases of a DSM-5 diagnosis of bipolar disorder – in other words, which brain regions are more activated in the MRI scanner? Recent studies of bipolar disorder have demonstrated, particularly in response to emotional stimuli like faces, that an over-active connectivity occurs between the amygdalae and prefrontal cortex – brain regions associated with arousal/fear and goal-directed behaviours respectively. This suggests that people with bipolar disorder may not be able to effectively self-regulate their emotional responses to their environment.  Such hyperactivity in the brain may also be associated with learned responses that began during significant past trauma, or may even be due to the increasingly stressful, busy and socially-isolated lives we lead today.  For example, chronic trauma, stress and social isolation (e.g. due to long working hours and parental separation) may cause a downregulation (reduction) of opioid receptors in the brain – the locks to the pain-relieving brain hormone keys. Opioids are the brain’s natural defense to pain – including emotional pain – and so if chronic emotional pain is experienced, opioids may become less potent over time.  We also release opioids and other hormones, such as oxytocin, during intimate pair-bonding.  If emotional and/or physical abuse is chronically experienced, a person may begin to exhibit more and more signs akin to emotional dysregulation and bipolar disorder.

And so, if you are a friend or family of a person who may be exhibiting manic or depressive   coupled with periods of low energy and hopelessness, in a cyclical pattern over long periods, with no obvious cause, it might be useful to do the following.  First, gently communicate with the person, to try to establish if there are serious, underlying causes for this behaviour, such as physical or emotional abuse (don’t simply assume that they are suffering from bipolar disorder).  Be prepared that the person may not wish to open up immediately, but be supportive and accepting.  If no obvious cause for the behaviour is established, then the second step might be to suggest the person visit a psychotherapist, to talk through with a trained professional who can establish the cause.  Finally, with the help of the therapist, a formal diagnosis for the behaviour can be established and treated, usually with a combination of suitable medication and further psychotherapy. 
symptoms, such as excessive energy, lack of sleep and risky behaviour (promiscuity, excessive spending and debt, gambling),

The ultimate take-home message is this: don’t be quick to give a layman’s diagnosis to a person who may exhibit symptoms akin to bipolar disorder, as there may be other reasons for their behaviour.  However, if a formal diagnosis by a trained professional is established, a person suffering with bipolar disorder has a wealth of treatment options available to him or her, that can enable them to continue living a fullfilling, enjoyable life!  We must always remember: life is too short and too precious to cause - or exacerbate - human suffering!

Dr Samantha Brooks is a neuroscientist at the UCT Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, specialising in the neural correlates of impulse control from eating disorders to addiction.  For more information on neuroscience at UCT and to contact Samantha, see Note: Images royalty free, courtesy of

Click to read all previous articles by Dr Samantha J. Brooks Ph.D. 

The future is homes that are smaller, smarter and greener

Affordability, convenience and security are the key factors driving a distinct buyer preference at the moment for smaller homes packed with “green” features and “smart” technologies.

That’s the word from, SA’s biggest bond originator, who says that affordability remains a serious concern for most buyers because they are still labouring under relatively heavy debt loads and worried about rising taxes and the increasing cost of food, fuel and utilities. “SA consumers are much more conservative spenders than they used to be and really careful now about getting in over their heads.

“Consequently, while the banks are keen to lend to homebuyers and our bond approval rate is at 80%, the highest level since the 2008/ 09 financial crash, the latest statistics from Absa show that the total of outstanding household mortgage balances is currently growing more slowly than it did last year. The year-on-year growth rate is down from 3,6% in November 2017 to 3,1% currently.”

This does not mean, he says, that South Africans are buying fewer homes – only that they are buying less expensive homes. “This is confirmed by our own statistics*, which show that more than three-quarters (78%) of the bonds granted in the past 12 months have been for less than R1,5m – and that 60% were actually for less than R1m.

“In general terms, these cheaper homes are also smaller, as indicated by recent FNB research showing that the average size of new homes being built in SA has shrunk from a peak of 203sqm in 1974 to around 162sqm now – and that accounts in large measure for the current slow growth in home prices (2,9% year-on-year) in spite of a drop in the prime interest rate and increased sales volumes.” 
However, Botha says, affordability is not the only reason for the increased popularity of smaller, cheaper homes. “Changing lifestyles also play a big role. Household sizes are shrinking, for example, so buyers generally need fewer bedrooms. Many homeowners now are also short of time so don’t want a large garden or home to maintain. Traffic congestion is also driving a significant shift from the large homes of the suburbs to smaller homes in urban centres. 

“In the SA context it must be said that smaller properties are usually also easier and less expensive to secure, and the effect of this concern can clearly be seen not only in the increasing number of estate developments, but also in the steady growth of Sectional Title in SA over the past 30 years. In the late 1980s, secure sectional title developments accounted for only 6% of new builds in the country, but today they account for 27% of all new homes.”

The quest for greater security and personal safety, he says, is also one of the main factors driving the current rapid uptake of “smart” home technologies in SA. “Using these technologies, owners can monitor their alarm systems and security cameras via their smart-phones even when they are not at home, photograph any intruders, open or close garage doors and gates, and turn lights on and off to make it seem as though there is someone at home.   

“This is definitely appealing to SA homeowners and according to Statista, the overall value of the smart home automation market in SA is expected to top US$60m by 2020. Meanwhile, there is already sufficient demand for local security companies such as Fidelity ADT to have introduced security-focused smart home packages.”

And finally, says Botha, the trend towards smaller homes is being driven by a growing awareness among SA homebuyers of what it costs in environmental terms to run a larger home. “Cape Town residents have seen, for example, how much water can be saved just through more conscious usage, while the threat of renewed rolling blackouts this winter is causing many others to revisit the drawbacks of electricity derived from fossil fuels.

“As a result there is rising demand for smaller homes that use less energy and water and are already fitted with ‘green’ equipment such as heat pumps, solar panels and rainwater tanks. And some of the banks now even have special home loan options for owners who want to retrofit such ‘green’ systems, because doing so definitely adds value to their properties.”

Anne-Marie Bamber is Norgarb Properties dedicated Home Loans Consultant. She has over 15 years’ experience in assisting clients with their Home Loan needs and has placed many happy families in their dream homes.

Contact her today for no cost stress-free home-buying.
Anne-Marie Bamber
Home Loans consultant
Tel: +27 (0)21 851 3568 | Fax: +27 (0)21 441 1494 | Cell: +27 (0)82 071 1665

Permission to Braai

One day you wake up and think that you're finally going to build that built in braai you've wanted for years. It should be easy, choose a spot, grab the bricks, cement it all together...

However, there is more to a built-in braai than just throwing bricks together. There are all sorts of things you need to consider - the height of the flue, spark inhibitors, the proximity to roofing timbers, wind, rain, heat, planning permission, and so on.

One of the most frequently asked questions is: "Do I need planning permission for a built in braai?"
Well, yes and no. A built in braai is normally classified as "minor building work" and whilst you do not need to submit plans, The National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act (No. 103 of 1977) states that no person may erect, alter, add to, or convert any building without prior approval by the local authority. So as long as you comply with the "minor building work" regulations and have received permission from the local authority's building control officer, you do not need to submit any plans.

If your braai does not fall under "minor building work" then you will need to submit plans for approval before building commences. If you are not sure which category your built-in braai will fall under, it is probably best to check with your council just to be sure. If your braai is being built against a boundary wall, in most parts of SA, your neighbours' consent will be required. This can be done by informing them in writing. Keep in mind that they might object if the smoke will interfere with their own property and the enjoyment thereof.

Because the regulations can be a bit of a minefield and no case is the same, it is probably best to contact your local building inspectors for advice on where and how to begin. From there you can go to the planning department of your local municipality. If plans are needed, by law, only building plans from professionals registered with the South African Council for the Architectural Profession will be accepted. This may seem like a complicated task, but you won't regret the fees when you have peace of mind that the person you've hired has sound knowledge of the regulations and you can get everything right the first-time round.

Happy braai building!

Norgarb Properties Agent Andre Ter Moshuizen who specialises in the Claremont area, shares some household tips and handy home hints with you every month. Read more of his articles here. []

Andre Ter Moshuizen: 082 602 1367 | | []

Staying Healthy as We Get Older

Blog Harfield: Staying Healthy as We Get Older (May 2018)

By Dr Murray McDonald

Getting older is an inevitable and often tough part of life. But it doesn’t have to mean giving up on your health. In fact, we know more than ever about how to age well and stay as vivacious, and this advice doesn’t have to be complicated. Would you like to know more?

Your Age is How You Feel
Gone are the days when 60 years old meant a mandatory blue-rinse and a donkey cart to the retirement village. Not that there’s anything wrong with those things – I happen to love donkeys. But as we’ve advanced as a society we have pushed our life expectancy higher and higher. However, that doesn’t necessarily mean that those years are healthy years. To avoid illness and have as much energy as possible requires a concerted effort. So where should your effort be best applied?

The Game Doesn’t Change Much
“I guess I’m just getting older.” I hear this every single day. And while it’s true (that is more or less how time works) it doesn’t mean that your body just gives up on you. It’s far more common that you give up on it. And it’s utter rubbish. Do certain things decline with age? Yes. All sorts of things. Is it scary? Yes. But do you know what makes them decline more than anything else?

Lack of use.
Our muscles, our joints, our brains all require constant challenge to stimulate their strength. Move it or lose it. And THAT is where a lot of the problems lie. As we get older we start doing less. We move less, we go out less, we learn less – we ask less of ourselves. And our bodies give it to us. Less.
Why do we do this? We feel tired because we get up at night to pee. Or we get comfortable with staying at home rather than going out. Or our knees hurt. Or we’re just not hungry. And all of these are perfectly reasonable excuses. However, though different to the excuses we gave in our twenties and thirties, they amount to the same. We see them as insurmountable barriers instead of challenges.

The ultimate challenge is getting what you want out of life.

What is important to you? What makes you tick (or tock)? Is it time with your children? Or grandchildren? Is it getting out of the house? Out on the town? Is it a sport? Or just staying fit enough to tend the garden? Whatever it is that fills you with joy or purpose or accomplishment, you need to live in a way that give you the mobility, the energy, the freedom to live your life the way you want.

And that is why I say: The game doesn’t change much. We need to eat properly. We need to exercise often. We need to spend time with friends & family. And we need to have purpose – something that gets us out of bed. So - with all of this in mind – what does a healthy lifestyle look like when you’re older?

The Healthy Ageing Lifestyle
1. Eat enough protein and vegetables: Nutrient deficiency and obesity are big problems that you can help solve by eating enough of the good stuff. You are what you eat so try not to eat too much junk.
2. Set exercise goals: Pick something that would mean a lot to you and work towards it in realistic steps. Whether it’s climbing a mountain or climbing the stairs, every journey is simply stringing enough steps together. Try including some endurance exercise e.g. walking as well as some strengthening exercises e.g. calisthenics.
3. Include your people: Burdens are easier when shared. Not only that, life is just a lot more fun with someone to help support and motivate you. So, whether it’s going to the doctor, making a meal, or going for a walk – take someone with you. They probably need it too.
4. Get a good physician: Because no matter how healthy we live, getting older increases your risks for all sorts of things. Find someone who does all your check ups and tests, but also listens to and takes time to teach you about your health.
5. Enjoy your body: It is a place we must all leave one day. Might as well take care of it to get the most out of it.

For more information, give us a call on 0216832996, browse our site at, or follow us on social media @TheChiroHealth.

The CV

The CV
Lipstick on a pig & other popular misunderstandings
Written by Madge  Gibson

In South Africa’s competitive job market, presenting a well-written CV is not only sensible, but shrewd.

Employers are increasingly frustrated by poorly constructed CVs that waste their time.
Laborious, cluttered CVs with lazy typo’s and spelling mistakes – these are a few of the
things that contribute to missed opportunities.

So what kinds of misunderstandings devalue a CV?

A good CV will get you the job - FALSE
Yes a good CV is important – it represents you - it’s an introduction that will hopefully lead to an
interview. But, if your interview skills don’t match the impressive CV content, you won’t necessarily get the job.

Having a strong CV but poor interviewing skills is about as helpful as putting lipstick on a pig.
You need both.

CVs aren’t as important these days - FALSE
CVs continue to be recruitment currency, whether in soft or hard copy. A well-written, content
appropriate CV that is easy to read will win the heart of many a recruiter, providing you with a greater chance of being considered for a role.

Including a photograph on your CV is expected - FALSE
You are applying for a job, not a date.

Unless your appearance is particularly important to the position (such as applying for an acting or
modelling role), the focus should be on your skills and experience. Also, including a photograph
immediately opens you up to unconscious bias based on your appearance – so why go there?

Writing your CV in the 3rd person is clever - FALSE
No. No. And NO. It’s just weird. Don’t do it.

Avoid tired clichés and self-congratulatory adjectives - TRUE
A CV should be an unpretentious summary of facts. Overselling or hyping yourself will only create
doubt about your objectivity.
Deal with the facts, use positive language and include achievements, but avoid blatantly boastful
language such as “outstanding”, “unparalleled” “inspired”, “winning” … etc.

Triple check for spelling, grammatical errors and typos - TRUE
Your CV is a business document not a WhatsApp message.

A badly written CV is a Red Flag, it can indicate ineptitude, indifference, or at the very least a lack of
attention to detail. No employer wants that. If you know this is an area of weakness, ask someone to
help you.

Size counts - TRUE
Ideally a CV should be no longer than 2 to 3 pages.

Part of successful CV composition is knowing how to write concisely without leaving out important
information. No one has time for lengthy documents these days, so the ability to summarise, as well as prioritise information, is a skill that employers welcome.
Remember, your CV is a summary, not a novel.

Minimise personal information - TRUE
The days of including your marital status, number of children, home address, ID number, date of birth, salary, drivers licence etc. etc. are over. With cyber crime and identity theft on the increase we need to be more circumspect with what we share.
Include contact details such as mobile number and email address, but the rest can be covered during a

Article by Madge Gibson, Harfield Village Resident


This recipe comes from a little Woolworths booklet I have had for ages.  Its easy and something different for a starter or snack. 


150g gorgonzola
200 Taleggio cheese
A few sprigs fresh thyme
4 Tbls honey
50g toasted almonds, chopped
1 sliced baguette


Set oven to 180 degrees. Place cheese and thyme in ovenproof dish and bake for 10 minutes or until melted.  Pour over honey and scatter the almonds.  Serve with the baguette.

Estate Agent
Cell: +27 (0)82 846 0739 | Office: +27 (0)21 674 1120 | Fax: +27 (0)21 774 4927
Focus Areas: Kenilworth & Claremont Village

An Update from the HVCID - May 2018

The Harfield Village Community Improvement District (HVCID) are proud to announce that the 2018 Harfield Village Carnival made just over a R100 000 profit. These funds will be used to kick start the Village's security camera initiative. The HVCID committee will be releasing more details about the installation of cameras and the time frames at our AGM in September. In the meantime we will be getting revised quotes to update our overall camera plan, as the technology and prices have changed since we first investigated license plate recognition (LPR) cameras. We will also communicate with Fidelity ADT, SAPS, Har-Lyn Neighbourhood Watch and any other relevant parties to ensure an optimal camera initiative.

We would like to thank all those people who assisted with the organisation of the carnival both in the lead up and on the day. A very big thank you to all our sponsors as without these organisation's support and donations the Carnival would not have been possible. And in particular to Fidelity ADT, the main sponsor, who have also donated 2 license plate recognition cameras. Finally we would like to thank all the residents, families and friends who came out in amazing numbers to support the carnival. Although we don't have controlled access and therefore cannot get an accurate attendance figure, it is estimated that about 15 000 people attended the carnival through the day, which is a record number.

Again, many thanks to our sponsors: Fidelity ADT, Remax Premier, Olympic Cycles, SA Home Loans, Norgarb Properties, STBB, Betterbond, Rawson Properties, Supa Quick, Audi Centre Claremont, Claremont Volkswagen, Heads Property and Seeff Properties.

And sponsors of services: City of Cape Town, ER24, Revprint, Good Hope FM, Everything Internet, GIBHW, Morne Pieper of Kiiu, DCP Industries, ABInBev, Madge Gibson and Ronel Botha.

Raffle prizes from Vodacom and Huawei, Blaauwklippen, Revprint, Change Initiative, Atlantic Storm Brewery, Milk & Honey and Warwick First Lady.

Manager - Harfield Village Community Improvement District (HVCID)
Cell: 081 412 6109 E-mail:

Sage One or Wave Accounting

Sage One or Wave Accounting- which one is the correct one for your business?

Out of the Top 10 Cloud Accounting Software - Sage One and Wave are my favourite.

Choosing the correct accounting software for your Business.

When I started my business, I purchased Pastel Express a desktop software, because I needed to use it for my clients' books and mine. I didn't immediately go out and buy it because it was not in my budget. So I started off with good old Microsoft Office Excel. I created my own set of books in excel. I still use excel on a daily basis.

But I found an accounting package that works for me. It is best suited to freelancers or one person businesses. It is an online cloud accounting package called WAVE Accounting. Very simple to use and if you make a mistake you can correct it. I use this for some of my clients. The good news about Wave Accounting is it is free.

For the clients that have more complicated Bookkeeping with loads of suppliers, I use Sage One accounting. It is very user-friendly and has tutorials to follow. It has easy to read reports. You can set up your banking profile and it will automatically upload your bank statements to the accounting software. It has a preset chart of accounts which you can change or just use as is. I love to get new clients because I get to see how they manage there bookkeeping. I get to crap a bietjie and put things in order or if they have awesome books I work with what they have got and just offer a reconciliation process which makes me there checker.

Both packages Sage One and Wave Accounting are cloud basis,

so you can access them from anywhere there is an internet connection. You collaborate (Wave Accounting) or invite your accountant(SageOne) and we can pop in and check whats happening.  Sage One has updated the VAT to 15%, There is a setting in Company settings where you can tick the old 14% as the default tax while you are still catching up or completing the last financial year and last month. When processing you can change the VAT type back and forth.

If you do not love anything about accounting. I have met a few that don't they can just do there invoicing in either package and let us Bookkeepers Accountants do the rest and we will keep you up to date.

I am a certified Sage One and Wave advisor, if you need any information about the package or training on the packages please do not hesitate to contact me. Cherine Mac Pherson –, 082 403 0792.

Delicious soup recipes to keep you warm

There is nothing better on a chilly night than warming up with a hearty soup. Try some of these delicious recipes. Remember to make the soup piping hot so that you can enjoy every spoonful slowly and mindfully.

Creamy Thai Carrot Sweet Potato Soup
Serves 4


• 1 tbsp. oil (optional)
• 2 medium onions
• 2 garlic cloves, minced
• 1 tbsp. fresh ginger, minced
• 2 tbsp. red curry paste
• 4 cups vegetable stock (more if needed)
• ¼ cup peanut butter
• 6-8 medium, diced
• 3-4 medium sweet potatoes, diced
• Salt, freshly ground black pepper to taste
• ¼ tsp. cayenne pepper
• Chopped coriander, lime juice and roasted almonds for topping


1. Sauté the onion, garlic and ginger for 5-6 minutes until the onion is translucent.
2. Stir in the curry paste.
3. Melt the peanut butter in some of the stock. Add to the soup pot with the carrots, sweet potatoes, salt and rest of the vegetable stock.
4. Bring the soup to a boil. Lower the heat and simmer for 15-20 minutes until the carrots and potatoes are cooked.
5. Blend the soup to a smooth consistency.
6. Season to taste with salt and black pepper and add the cayenne pepper if you would like more spice. Thin the soup with some extra stock if the soup is too thick for your liking.
7. Serve the soup and top with coriander, a squeeze of lime juice and/or
toasted almonds.

Recipe adapted from

Roasted Broccoli Soup
Serves 4


• 1 broccoli head, separated into florets
• 3 tbsp. olive oil
• 1 stalk celery, chopped
• 2-3 medium carrots, chopped
• 1 medium onion, chopped
• 4 cups vegetable stock
• 1 cup milk
• Salt and pepper to taste
• ¼ cup strong cheddar and ¼ cup yoghurt for topping


1. Heat the oven to 200°C. Toss the broccoli with 2 tbsp. of oil and 1 tsp. of salt. Place onto a baking tray and roast for about 20-25 minutes until golden brown.
2. Sauté the celery, carrots, and onion for about 12-15 minutes until the vegetables are tender.
3. Add the roasted broccoli and stock and bring to the boil. Reduce the heat and simmer until the vegetables are cooked, about 30-35 minutes.
4. Remove from the heat and add the milk.
5. Puree the soup and add more milk if it is too thick.
6. Reheat the soup and season to taste.
7. Serve the soup topped with a dollop of yoghurt and sprinkling of cheese.

Recipe adapted from

Chunky Tomato Red Pepper Soup
Serves 6


• 1 tbsp. oil (optional)
• 2 medium red bell peppers, chopped
• 1 medium onion, chopped
• 2 garlic cloves, minced
• 2 tbsp. tomato paste
• 1 tsp. paprika
• 1 can tomatoes with basil
• 1½ cups vegetable stock
• 1 tsp. sugar
• Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste
• Chopped fresh basil and yoghurt for the topping


1. Sauté the peppers and onion for 10 minutes until golden and tender.
2. Stir in the garlic, tomato paste and paprika and cook for 1 minute.
3. Stir in the tomatoes, stock, sugar, salt and pepper. Crush the tomatoes with the back of a spoon.
4. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer for 15 minutes.
5. Season with salt and pepper if needed.
6. Serve and stir in some yoghurt and basil

Recipe adapted from

Leek and Potato Soup
Serves 4


• 1kg potatoes, diced
• 2 leeks, chopped
• 2 cups fat free milk
• 1 pear
• Salt, pepper and nutmeg to taste
• Chives, spring onions and/or chopped pecans for topping


1. Boil the potatoes in the milk for about 10 minutes.
2. Add the leeks and pear and cook for another 10-15 minutes until the potatoes are soft.
3. Blend until smooth.
4. Reheat the soup, and season with salt, pepper and nutmeg.
5. Serve and top with chives, spring onions and/or chopped pecans.

Recipe adapted from

Kim Hofmann RD(SA)
Phone: 021 674 4666
Cell: 084 206 2715